So, what is Git in a nutshell? This is an important section to absorb, because if you understand what Git is and the fundamentals of how it works, then using Git. The second edition of this book is meant to address those example of Git hosting, I have decided to turn that part of the book into more. Access this book for free. ISBN ; This book is an open access book, you can download it for free on Softcover 44,95 €.

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Pro Git, Second Edition

You will see these hash values all over the place in Git because it uses them so much. It makes Git reconsider almost every aspect of version control that most other systems copied from the fitpro generation. Git has three main states that your files can reside in: Git Has Integrity Everything in Git is checksummed before it is stored and is then referred to by that checksum. Conceptually, most other systems store information as a list of file-based changes.

Git – Git Basics

You selectively stage just those changes you want to be part of your next commit, which adds only those changes to the staging area. You do a commit, which takes the files as they are in the staging area and stores that snapshot permanently to your Git directory. In fact, Git stores everything in its database not by file name but by the hash value of its contents.


Staged means that you have marked a modified file in its current version to go into your next commit snapshot. You modify files in your working tree.

And if it was changed since it was checked out but has not been staged, it is modified. Git and Other Systems 9. This may not seem like a huge deal, but you may be surprised what a big difference it can make. This makes using Git a joy because we know we can experiment without the danger of severely screwing things up.

This means you see the project history almost instantly. Git in Other Environments A1.

This makes Git more like a mini filesystem with some incredibly powerful tools built on top of it, rather than simply a VCS. Git on the Server 4. If you get on an airplane or a train and want to do a little work, you can commit happily to your local copy, remember?

With Git, every time you commit, or save the state of your project, Git basically takes a picture of what all your files look like at that moment and stores a reference to that snapshot.

So, what is Git in a nutshell? When you do actions in Git, nearly all of them only add data to the Git database. Git thinks about its data more like a stream of snapshots.

Conservancy is currently raising funds to continue their mission. Because you have the entire history of the project right there on your local disk, most operations seem almost instantaneous. A SHA-1 hash looks gitrpo like this: This is a bopk string composed of hexadecimal characters 0—9 and a—f and calculated based on the contents of a file or directory structure in Git.


These files are pulled out of the compressed database in the Git directory and placed on disk for you to use or modify.

The mechanism that Git uses for this checksumming is called a SHA-1 hash. The Git directory is where Git stores the metadata and object database for your project. A SHA-1 hash looks something like this:.

1.3 Getting Started – Git Basics

Git is a member of Software Freedom Conservancy, which handles legal and financial needs for the project. This is an important section to ggitpro, because if you understand what Git is and the fundamentals of how it works, then using Git effectively will probably be much easier for you.

If you want to see the changes introduced between the current version of a file and the file a month ago, Git can look up the file a month ago and do a local difference calculation, instead of having to either ask a remote server to do it or pull an older version of the file from the remote server to do it locally.