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Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Development and neurophysiology of mentalizing. Sign in to use this feature. Two or three years ago when services at the Library of Congress were reduced because of the budget squeeze, users of the library screamed bloody murder.

Beliefs Are Like Possessions. Helpless individuals usually do not feel capable of changing an unpleasant situation. Second, and not too surprisingly, consumers come to believe they have the freedom to obtain the product or service, even if they don’t regularly obtain it.

When citizens fight back: The effects of attributional style.

Interestingly, most of the presented studies viewed reactance primarily as an undesirable factor that has to be eliminated or at least reduced.

In general, people are convinced that they possess certain freedoms to engage in so-called free behaviors. Being persuaded to buy a specific product in the grocery store, being forced to pay tuition fees, being prohibited from using a mobile phone in school, and being instructed to perform work for the boss are all examples of threats to the freedom to act as desired, and this is where reactance comes into play.

Feeling able to resolve a threatening event i. Even if people first reflect on the restriction to their freedom cognitionthe experience of reactance seems to be also characterized by affect. I’m sure you are all familiar with these problems.


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Examining the role of trait reactance and sensation seeking on perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. From this we can draw a couple of lessons about consumer behavior. A theory of psychological reactance. Anger, coping, and frontal cortical activity: Dissonance and the pill: To test this, the authors compared four structural equation models: Request removal from index.

The neuropsychology of anxiety. Vicarious Reactance Two distinct views of vicarious reactance exist: Individualists indicated a higher increase of attractiveness of the eliminated option when the threat originated in the ingroup versus an outgroup. Recent studies have also shown that the experience of reactance can be associated not just with negative feelings, such reactancf anger, but also with activating positive affect, such as feeling strong and determined Steindl, Jonas, et al.

But the implication principle is based on logical or psychological understanding rather than on stimulus or response similarity. I think the consumer believes it to be one of his freedoms that the character remain constant.

Furthermore, reactance recatance produce both undesirable and desirable outcomes. If freedom was threatened at the end of a persuasive message, people directly disagreed with the message. Not only do I experience reactance, I feel a lot of it.

Understanding Psychological Reactance

Additionally, they were given a pill and told that it either did or did not improve performance on accuracy tasks. In two studies they found the best fit for the intertwined model.

Is it possible to experience reactance on behalf of another person? Reactance — the motivation to regain a freedom after it has been lost or threatened — leads people to resist the social influence of others. The effect of personal relevance and approach-related action expectation on relative left frontal cortical activity.

The therapeutic reactance scale: Otherwise, reactance effects frequently may be too minuscule to be of any consequence. He or she will raise hell in order to restore freedom, and the threatened alternative will look very attractive indeed.


And so what if it does? Individual Differences Research, — These would be freedoms such as watching your favorite TV program, spending one evening a week out with your friends, or going to bed early. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. A final, classic, example of potential implied threats to freedoms lies in one’s relationship to local, state, and federal governments Without going into the gory details, let me just remind you that a stop sign can be installed at an intersection where you don’t have time to stop in the morning, your land can be seized to be part of a new state highway, and you can lose federal tax deductions for some business expenses.

During reactance-arousing compared to anger-arousing situations, the middle temporal lobe, the temporal poles, and the gyrus rectus were active. This is a cognitive-reflective process leading to negative attitudes toward the message and finally results in lower behavioral intention to follow the aim of the message.

Rather than attempt a formal analysis around the implication principle, I would like simply to point to a few settings in which an understanding of implications should be important to our understanding of behavior.

Specifically, they show that examples of stereotypic women arouse some reactance response in feminist women and examples of counterstereotypic women arouse reactance in more traditional women. Distributed under the Hogrefe OpenMind License [http: For short messages, it has been found that the framing of the message as loss e.